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Ben Seymour, Nathaniel Daw, Peter Dayan, Tania Singer and Ray DolanStudies of decision-making and financial gain implicate the striatum in coding prediction. But what of return, financial loss, for example, what distinguishes a reward that is greater than from punishment or loss to expect less than expected? Seymour et al. Used a Pavlovian conditioning in which subjects followed a series of visual stimuli by indicating the personal financial gain or loss have been shown. Subjects then made appetitive or aversive predictions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygenation level-dependent responses were increased from baseline, as expected, in the striatum during appetitive predictions. Predictions also increases BOLD responses, a positive in response to financial losses. However, the signals were spatially separated, with gain prediction provoke activation in more anterior and ventral regions and loss prediction with multiple posterior regions are assigned. To produce lesions the posterior regions of of the thalamus stroke central pain and loss or reduction of pain and central thalamic lesions in Humans – - Jong H. Greenspan, Robert C. Coghill, Shinji Ohara, and Frederick A. Lenz sensation. This week, Kim et al. Mapped the thalamic nuclei, which produces damage purposefully allodynia, a painful response to normally innocuous mechanical and cold stimuli. The subjects had experienced small thalamus strokes. The authors used somatosensory testing and Atlas mapping with positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The authors hypothesized that damage to the ventral caudal and ventral posterior medial cores would be necessary change cold sensations and produce CPSP. Although all participants had lesions of Vc VMpo remained intact. Nevertheless, sensitivity to cold and tactile pain was compromised each. Unlike other subjects, the with with the best preserved Vc normal threshold for cold sensation. Heat pain thresholds remained unaffected, revealing subnuclear modality specificity in the thalamus.